Penn State scientists have a story for how snakes, which presumably evolved from lizards, lost their legs. They had to burrow through tight places. Part of their story involved disproving that snakes evolved from sea-going reptiles, like mosasaurs, explains the press release from Penn State’s Eberly College of Science. They compared genes from 64 species of lizards and snakes. Since no mosasaurs exist today, they took genes from Komodo dragons, their assumed closest living relatives. They feel their comparisons show that snakes evolved from land-dwelling lizards. So why would a land lizard want to lose its feet? The research suggests an answer to another long-debated question: why snakes lost their limbs. Their land-based lifestyle, including burrowing underground at least some of the time, may be the reason. “Having limbs is a real problem if you need to fit through small openings underground, as anybody who has tried exploring in caves knows,” Hedges says. “Your body could fit through much smaller openings if you did not have the wide shoulders and pelvis that support your limbs.” The researchers note that the burrowing lifestyle of many other species, including legless lizards, is correlated with the complete loss of limbs or the evolution of very small limbs.The research, to be published in the May 7, 2004 issue of the Royal Society’s Biology Letters, was funded in part by NASA’s Astrobiology Institute and by the National Science Foundation.Better not explore caves if you want your kids to have legs. Why do some lizards still crawl into tight places tighter than a big snake could pass? Why do gophers and weasels have legs? Is limb loss really evolution? The quote of the month (see top right box on this page) says it all.(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Mobile versions of websites are so 2009.You know those clunky, stripped-down versions of sites with addresses that tack an “m.” onto the beginning, and serve up a dumbed-down, limited version of their content? If Google has its way, those sites are headed for the dustbin of history.At I/O, Google’s developer conference held this week in San Francisco, executives Sundar Pichai and Linus Upson showed off examples of websites that traveled smoothly from desktops to tablets to smartphones. A website for the upcoming second installment of the Hobbit movie franchise let you soar above Middle Earth on many devices. And a racing game had cars leaping from smartphone to tablet to laptop.The vehicle of this, of course, is Google’s Chrome Web browser, which is now available across all those platforms (including, as of last year’s edition of the I/O conference, Apple’s iPhone and iPad).The point of the demonstrations: You should be able to build your website once and have it adapt to different computing environments, a notion called “responsive design.” Rather than force the creator of a website to design for specific screen sizes and interfaces – like keyboards versus touch screens, say – or force users to go through contortions to use websites optimized for the limitations of the wrong device, websites should just sense what computing device is being used and reconfigure themselves accordingly.Just a few years ago, that sounded like a pipe dream – hence, the proliferation of mobile-optimized websites standing alongside full desktop versions.At ReadWrite, we haven’t just been writing about responsive design. Since last October, when we launched a major redesign of our site, we’ve been living it. So we’re naturally biased in favor of this concept.It will take time and effort to rearchitect websites for this reality. And there will always be those holdouts- particularly within large, slow-moving businesses – who insist on designing for older versions of Web browsers or mobile devices. Legacy technologies which haven’t made the cross-platform leap, like Adobe’s fading Flash, need to be winnowed out. But those problem areas will increasingly be the exception, not rule.Let’s just have one Web. That seems easier.Photo by Nick Statt for ReadWrite owen thomas The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … Related Posts Tags:#Google Chrome#Google IO13#io13#mobile Web#Responsive Design
The book is always better than movie. There’s a reason that this is true. If you read the book first, you’ve already created the picture in your mind. Your pictures are the right pictures. Now some big shot Hollywood director comes along and shares his vision of what the pictures look like, and it’s nothing like your pictures. He gets it all wrong.The director leaves out some of the scenes that you loved. He takes some artistic liberties and changes things to make the picture flow. He even adds characters that don’t appear anywhere in the book. Even your friends say that the movie isn’t as good as the book.But your friends wouldn’t like your movie any better than you would like theirs. Your picture is not only different than the director’s picture, it’s different than your friend’s picture too. What you see in your mind, even though you are reading the same text, is uniquely your own, isn’t it?We can’t see the mental images we conjure up in someone else’s mind. Even when we have words that communicate some meaning, the way we interpret those words can be unique. What is “a long time?” What does “fast” mean? What does “better quality” mean? What does “expensive” mean?The more work you do to understand and see someone else’s pictures, the greater likelihood that you can help them achieve their vision. The quicker you are to believe that you know what someone else means without grasping their real vision, the more likely you are to disappoint them with the picture that you present.QuestionsWhat book have you read that you loved way more than the movie?Why is your picture different than someone else’s?How do you uncover your prospect’s pictures?What do you do to ensure you understand what that picture looks like? Get the Free eBook! Learn how to sell without a sales manager. Download my free eBook! You need to make sales. You need help now. We’ve got you covered. This eBook will help you Seize Your Sales Destiny, with or without a manager. Download Now
Watch the fight that changed the late Ken Norton‘s life. On March 1, 1973, Norton shocked the world when he fought the champion, Muhammad Ali for 12 rounds, leaving him with a bloody, shattered jaw.“I was taking out the mouthpiece and there was more and more blood on it. My bucket with the water and ice in it became red. In every other fight, between rounds, I’d take the mouthpiece out and put it in the bucket and there was just slobber on it. But here, after each round, I had to shake the mouthpiece to get all the blood out of it into the water.”Nobody expected Norton to be a worthy opponent for Ali, but by the end of the sixth round, it was clear that Norton not only was winning: he had seriously injured the champ.After wiring Ali’s jaw shut, Dr. Gary Manchester told the media, “It was a very bad break. The bone which was broken had three or four jagged edges. The edges kept poking into his mouth. He had so much pain during the fight that he’s totally exhausted right now.”
Mosaic of images of the Arctic by MODIS. Credit: NASA Explore further As the researchers note, millions of birds migrate to Arctic regions during the warmer months, covering much of the local landscape with guano. Until now, however, no connection between such droppings and temperature changes was ever made. During a trip to the Canadian Arctic two years ago, the researchers collected air samples for study. In analyzing those samples, the researchers found that during certain times of the year (when it was above freezing), there was a noticeable rise in ammonia levels. They report that they initially thought the ammonia was coming from the sea, but after some testing, found that was not the case. The next most obvious candidate was animals that live in such places—the logical choice for study was migrating birds because of their huge numbers.The researchers ran some calculations and fed the data into computer models that simulated the Arctic environment both with thousands of tons ammonia emissions into the air and without. They noted first that when guano was broken down by bacteria, ammonia was released, accounting for the rise they observed in their air tests. They also found that when the ammonia mixed with sulfuric acid and water molecules, both from ocean spray, airborne particles were formed that made their way into the atmosphere, contributing to cloud formation. Such low-lying clouds, the team explains, can reflect heat from the sun back into space, leaving the area cooler—the model showed by as much as 1W/m2 during the warmer months.The researchers are not suggesting that coaxing more birds to migrate to the Artic each year might slow melting of the ice, but they do suggest their work highlights just how complex our global ecosystem actually is, and how many factors contribute to its current state. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from Canada, Sweden and U.S. has found that bird excrement may be playing a role in cooling the Arctic during its warmer months. In their paper published in the journal Nature Communications, the team describes how they found higher than expected seasonal levels of ammonia in the air during trips they took to Arctic sites, how they traced it to bird feces and then modeled the impact it might be having on the local environment. Seabird guano releases more ammonia at tropics Citation: Bird excrement may be cooling the Arctic (2016, November 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-11-bird-excrement-cooling-arctic.html Journal information: Nature Communications More information: B. Croft et al. Contribution of Arctic seabird-colony ammonia to atmospheric particles and cloud-albedo radiative effect, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13444AbstractThe Arctic region is vulnerable to climate change and able to affect global climate. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions, which have poorly understood climate impacts related to atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we show that ammonia from seabird-colony guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of newly formed particles, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. Our chemical-transport model simulations indicate that the pan-Arctic seabird-influenced particles can grow by sulfuric acid and organic vapour condensation to diameters sufficiently large to promote pan-Arctic cloud-droplet formation in the clean Arctic summertime. We calculate that the resultant cooling tendencies could be large (about −0.5 W m−2 pan-Arctic-mean cooling), exceeding −1 W m−2 near the largest seabird colonies due to the effects of seabird-influenced particles on cloud albedo. These coupled ecological–chemical processes may be susceptible to Arctic warming and industrialization. © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.